The MEANING of KARANGAHAPE
Karangahape Road is probably the most famous street in New Zealand. But just what does the name mean?.
Looking north from the Karangahape ridge in the early 1840s
WHATS IN A NAME?
Maori placenames can have different interpretations depending on the iwi being consulted. There are three places in the country called Waitangi for example - all having acquired their names for different reasons.
In Auckland this is especially complicated as the Tamaki isthmus was fought over by several Maori tribes for almost 600 years. Certain places have more than one Maori name and some names apparently have several different meanings.
Until the middle of the 20th century Karangahape road was the only street in central Auckland with a Maori name. This is because it predates the European settlement.
The Symonds Street and Karangahape Road ridges are part of the walking route used by Maori to reach the Manukau Harbour (the route continues along Great North Road to Point Chevalier then turns south to Avondale and then on to Cornwallis at the Manukau Heads)
This track was known as: Te Ara o Karangahape - The Path of Karangahape.
Karangahape Road and Symonds Street are thus older than Queen Street or any other throughfare in central Auckland which were only laid out by the Government Surveyor Felton Mathew in 1840.
The Karangahape ridge was quite a dominant feature in the rather empty landscape in the 1840s, but it lay outside the area where the new town developed during the first decade or so.
This was probably the main reason Karangahape was the only Maori name in the central area to be kept by the new administration and incorporated into the new town of Auckland.
Karangahape Road 1856 / A watercolour by John Kinder showing St Keven's House on “Karangahapa" Road.
If the Symonds Street part of the Te Aro o Karangahape had a separate Maori name it is now lost, however the western portion beyond Ponsonby road was called Te Rae-o-Kawharu - (the Forehead of Kawharu).
Kawharu was a famous warrior chief, who led the Ngati Whatua incursion of the Tamaki isthmus in 1680. He was the half brother of Te Wehi. According to some sources he was a giant, reputably 8 metres tall.
The name commemorates the spot where the great chief Kawharu rested during the 1680 campaign, probably somewhere towards Surrey Crescent.
As a man of rank, Kawharu would have worn a `heru' (comb) in his hair. The head is always considered sacred in Maori society and the ridge is thus symbolic of the top of the head.
Te Rae-o-Kawharu is considered to apply to that part of the Karangahape ridge which is now called Great North Road (from the Ponsonby Road intersection to Surrey Crescent).
Looking north from the Karangahape ridge in the early 1840s
The multiple meanings of Karangahape
Karangahape can be interpreted in several different ways:
Karangahape - The Place of the Calling of Hape.
Hape was great chief, revered to this day as one of the founders of the Tainui Iwi and he was probably one of their early Tohunga or Priests. Some of the stories suggest he was a seer or mystic with magical powers, possibly even a demi-god..
Hape's name literally means 'club foot' although it can also mean 'rejected' or 'left behind'.
Following the discovery of Aotearoa plans were made in the ancestral homeland of Hawaiki to settle the new land, this probably happened around 1350 AD.
When the the Tainui waka was about to set sail, only people in the best physical condition were selected.
Due to his clubbed foot Hape was not one of those selected, and he was left behind in Hawaiki.The vovage of the waka to Aotearoa was long and arduous, most of those on board forgot about Hape.
As the people disembarked on the shores of the Waitemata Harbour they could see a man standing on a distant hill.
It was Hape, he had used his powers to summon a giant stingray to transport him; he had arrived arrived in Aotearoa weeks earlier.
He stood on the ridge and called out a karanga to those on the beach.
Thus the ridge became known as
Te karanga a Hape - The Place of the Calling of Hape.
In this version, Karangahape is the place where Hape himself called out to people a karanga or greeting.
Another interpretation of this name is that the ridge was the place where people offered up prayers or calls to Hape as a revered ancestor or demi-god.
You will note that “The Place of the Calling of Hape" can thus be interpreted with Hape being either the protaganist and the recipiant of the greeting or Karanga.
Karangahape - Cornwallis:
Most sources say Hape was an actual historic figure who lived on the shores of the Manukau harbour in an area now called Cornwallis but then called Karangahape.
As a venerated elder of the Tainui iwi and possibly a mystic seer people would have visited him to pay their respects and to consult him on dreams and omens.
As the Karangahape Road is part of the walking route used by Maori to reach the Manukau, anyone wanting to consult Hape would have travelled along this ridge to reach him.
After his death it is probable the place where he had lived (or his burial site, or both) likewise took on an aura of mysticism, reinforced by his connection with the mythical demi-god of the same name.
Thus the trail that led from the Waitamata to Karangahape was known as Te Aro o Karangahape.
Karangahape - THE SHELL PATH
More prosaically “Karangahape" can mean “the shell path" - although this derivation seems obscure in modern Maori.
However this name would coincide with the ridge being used as a walking route between the Waitamata and Manukau harbours - the usual 'convenience food' for a trip was small shellfish such as pipis etc which were easily transportable.
Most walking tracks and camp sites were distinguished by discarded shells.
Inevitably the track along the Symonds Street - K Road ridge would have been demarcated by centuries of crushed shells - this white path between the bracken fern and flax bushes would have been easy to follow, especially by moonlight.
Karangahape - THE WINDING RIDGE OF HUMAN ACTIVITY
Another interpretation of the name Karangahape is 'the winding ridge of human activity' which obviously pertains to the fact the ridge track was a major walking route for over six hundred years.
None of the various explanations of the name actually contradict each other - the area was occupied by successive tribes who apparently used roughly the same name to demarcate the ridge.
As the ridge stood outside the inital area organised by the early european planners of Auckland the name survived into the 20th century.
During the 19th century apparently most people simply refered to it as "the Road" thus avoiding any problems with pronouciation.
In the 20th century there were two movements to change the name to something shorter, more modern and more easily pronounced.
Neither of these campaigns had much energy behind them and were ultimately unsuccessful (see Changing the Name of Karangahape Road)
The ISTHMUS of Auckland - the Vanished Trees
Unlike the rest of the Auckland Province which was heavily forested, the isthmus of Auckland was curiously empty.
The landscape of the isthmus was covered mostly in bracken fern and flax with occasional stands of manuka bushes or cabbage trees.
The absence of forest cover was probably largely due to 200,000 years of volcanic activity; there are over 50 volcanoes in the vicinity of the Auckland isthmus, many of which erupted several times.
One of the most impressive results of this activity is Meola Reef near Point Chevalier. This is the end of a Lava Flow from Mount St John which is almost five miles long.
Over several dozen thousand years this was added to by Lava flows from Mount Eden, Three Kings and Mount Albert, each of which erupted more than once.
The enormous amount of Lava entering the Waitamata Harbour at Westmere almost reached Northcote Point and thus just about blocked the harbour.
Added to this was the individual volcanoes themselves, spewing hot ash and lava on the landscape around them. Each time the damaged forest cover tried to regenerate it was set on fire again.
Such fires as these would also have opened up gaps in the foliage making the forest trees susceptible to wind damage.
600 years of Maori occupancy meant that any remaining stands of trees were cut down to open up land for agriculture and provide material for fortified pahs and housing.
It is likely that by the 16th century the isthmus and large parts of South Auckland were comparatively bare of large trees and comprised largely of scrub and boggy wetlands.
View of Newmarket & Mt Hobson - John Merrett circa 1850
Any trees which survived usually did so because some sacred event had made them tapu.
This is the reason why One Tree Hill got its name; on the summit of Maungakiekie stood a sacred totara tree, Te Totara i Ahua. This had been planted to mark the birth of a great chief of the tribe.
In Newmarket was a great Cabbage tree called Te Tiitutah which had a similar story attached to it.
Solitary trees such as these standing in an otherwise empty and rather bleak landscape were obvious landmarks and even after the death of the trees their names continued to be used.
Two such vanished trees demarcated each end of what is now Karangahape Road.
The point where the Karangahae ridge and the Ponsonby ridge meet was apparently known as Te Rimu Tahi - 'The Lone Rimu Tree'.
The area where the Symonds Street ridge meets the Karangahape ridge was known as Te Iringa o Rauru - “the hanging up of Rauru's body".
Neither of these trees were extant when the first europeans arrived and it is difficult to astertain just how long ago they might have vanished or exactly where they stood.
Rauru was a Ngati Whatua chief slain by the Waiohua. As a warning to others his body was hung up on a tree, which thus became tapu.
This act was a contributing factor in the attack by Ngati Whatua on the Waiohua and Ngati Paoa tribes around 1740 and their subsequent occupation of Tamaki.
That campaign culminated in a battle at Paruroa - Big Muddy Creek near Cornwallis, whose Maori name is, of course, Karangahape.
The battle is known as “Te Rangi- hinganga-tahi" (The day when all fell together). There the Waiohua chief Kiwi Tamaki was slain by Waha Aki Aki and his body hung up in a tree.
Thus interestingly the two ends of Te Aro o Karangahape were demarcated by Tapu trees, creating a sort of symmetry.
The one at the Waitamata end (Te Iringa o Rauru - “the hanging up of Rauru's body") commemorated the slaying of a Chief of the Ngati Whatua by the Ngati Waiohua.
The one at Cornwallis/Karangahape was the location of the act of retaliation; the slaying of a Chief of the Ngati Waiohua by the Ngati Whatua.
View of Rangitoto from the Auckland Domain - John Guise Mitford 1843
The Meaning of Tamaki Makau Rau
As the narrowest part of the North Island and the location of rich fishing grounds the isthmus of Auckland was fought over by many Maori tribes during the 600 or so years before the founding of the city in 1840.
The area was known as Tamaki Makau Rau, which can mean “She of the many Lovers" “isthmus of one thousand lovers" or “Desired by Many".
The word Tamaki can be interpreted in various ways:
- The narrow neck of land between the Waitemata and Manukau harbours,
- An ancient ancestor whose daughter married Toi-te-huatahi from the Bay of Plenty,
- The son of Maruiwi - another ancient ancestor, from Taranaki,
- A line of chiefs descended from the ancestress Parehuia of Taranaki,
- A daughter of Maki, a more recent ancestor and founding chief of the Waitakere tribe Te Kawerau-a-Maki,
- The name of a chieftainess - daughter of the Ngati Te Ata chief Te Rangikiamata,
- The name of an 18th century Te Wai-o-hua chief Kiwi Tamaki.
Auckland from the Government Domain - Edward Ashworth
Auckland from Pitt Street - J.P. Hogan 1853
The Meaning of AUCKLAND
Auckland was the name given by the first Governor, William Hobson RN, in 1840 to the new Capital of the Colony of New Zealand; it is also the title of the Auckland province which includes a large part of the upper North Island.
Auckland is named for the first Earl of Auckland, William Eden (1784-1849). Three times the first Lord of the Admiralty, Lord Auckland was Governor General of India between 1836 and 1842.
Eden had been a mentor for William Hobson RN who as the first Governor of New Zealand commemorated his patron by naming the new Capital after him as well as the most prominent hill; Mount Eden.
Upon Eden's death in 1849 the Earldom became extinct although the barony survived through one of his brothers. William Eden was thus the first and last Earl of Auckland.
William Eden (1784-1849)
The Bronze statue in Aotea Square was sculpted by Henry Weeks RA in 1848 and had originally been erected in Calcutta.
Like many similar statues, after India became independant in 1947, it was removed from public display.
In 1968 the Government of West Bengal gifted the item to the City of Auckland.
The titles of Baron Auckland & Earl of Auckland are derived from a place called Bishop Auckland in the north of Britain. In the middle ages this was land owned by the Bishop of Durham.
Bishop Auckland, West Auckland and St Helen Auckland are all located on the River Gaunless in Durham.
The name of the River Gaunless is Viking and means 'useless' either because of its sluggish inability to work a mill, or because of a lack of fish. In pre-Viking times it was called the Clyde.
The earliest recorded form of Auckland is Alcleat, a name of Celtic origin meaning cliff on the Clyde.
In later years the old name Alcleat was interpreted by the Vikings as Auckland which means separate or additional land being extra land granted to the Bishop of Durham by King Canute around 1020.
It may be a version of 'Oakland', refering to the well wooded countryside.
For a while Auckland, New Zealand actually had a location called Bishop's Auckland. In 1843 Bishop Selwyn set up the Anglican Theological St John's College at Meadowbank.
This area is now a suburb called Saint Johns but for a while in the 1840s and 50s it was refered to by many as Bishops Auckland and it appears as such on early maps.
COAT OF ARMS of the CITY of AUCKLAND
Cities adopt coats of arms to give themselves a unique sense of identity.
Each comprise traditional heraldic elements derived from medieval precedence: arms (inside the shield), crest (above the shield), supporters (beside the shield), and motto.
In New Zealand, the imagery often combines British and local elements.
Auckland's Coat of Arms
These were adopted in 1911 and used until 2010
The Arms consist of a shield displaying a cornucopia ('horn of plenty'), reflecting the wealth of the land; a pick and shovel, symbols of mining in the region; and a sailing ship, showing the city's close relationship with the sea as a major Port.
The Crest is composed of a visored Helm which represents Auckland City's status as a corporation, the castellated crown is a traditional symbol of a city.
The flowering plant surmounting the Crest is the native flax, which was the common ground cover of the isthmus for centuries. The supporters are two Kiwi birds, and the motto is 'Advance'.
The 1911 Coat of Arms came about directly because of the creation of Grafton Bridge.
The City Engineer, Walter Arthur Bush, suggested that the piers on the new bridge should display the City Coat of Arms.
It was with some embarrassment that it was admitted that the City did not actually have a Coat of Arms.
Auckland City had been in existance since 1870 but no-one had ever thought to apply to the College of Heralds for a Coat of Arms. (apparently none of the other cities or boroughs had one either).
An appication was made to the College of Heralds in London who worked through the process of selecting an appropriate set of images and words for the City of Auckland.
The City of Auckland became the first Municipal body in New Zealand to recieve a Coat of Arms.
Ironically they were never put on Grafton Bridge.
The 1st of November 2010 saw the amalgamation of Councils in Auckland.
Like the other Councils, the City of Auckland's Coat of Arms became defunct at this time.
The new Auckland Council has not, as yet, created a new coat of Arms.
1858 Map of Auckland
This map was created by Ferdinand Von Hochsetter and shows the volcanic landscape of the Auckland isthmus.
Prior to the arrival of european settlers the isthmus was largely devoid of large trees and the vegetation that did occur in the area was fairly sparse in nature.
It was therefore much easier to discern the types of soils and rocks that made up the landscape.
Hochstetter was in Auckland at a very opportune time - even a decade later much of the landscape was becoming obscured by buildings and introduced plants.
The 1858 Map of Auckland